As the first edition cover illustration indicates, the title also alludes to the perceptual shift required for countries, companies, and individuals to remain competitive in a global market in which historical and geographic divisions are becoming increasingly irrelevant. Friedman himself is a strong advocate of why the world isn’t flat pdf changes, calling himself a “free-trader” and a “compassionate flatist”, and he criticizes societies that resist the changes.
Friedman’s is a popular work based on much personal research, travel, conversation, and reflection. The book was first released in 2005, was later released as an “updated and expanded” edition in 2006, and was yet again released with additional updates in 2007 as “further updated and expanded: Release 3. Friedman termed the period Globalization 3. 0, thereby differentiating it from the previous, Globalization 1. 0, during which countries and governments were the main protagonists, and Globalization 2. 0, during which multinational companies led the way in driving global integration.
Friedman repeatedly uses lists as organizational devices to communicate key concepts, usually numbered and often with provocative labels. Two example lists are the ten forces that flattened the world, and three points of convergence. Friedman called the flattener “When the walls came down, and the windows came up. At that point, the basic platform for the revolution to follow was created: IBM PC, Windows, a standardized graphical interface for word processing, dial-up modems, a standardized tool for communication, and a global phone network.
Netscape and the Web broadened the audience for the Internet from its roots as a communications medium used primarily by “early adopters and geeks” to something that made the Internet accessible to everyone from five-year-olds to ninety-five-year-olds. The digitization that took place meant that everyday occurrences such as words, files, films, music, and pictures could be accessed and manipulated on a computer screen by all people across the world. This is Friedman’s catch-all for the standards and technologies that allowed work to flow. It is the ability of machines to talk to other machines with no humans involved, as stated by Friedman. Friedman believes those first three forces have become a “crude foundation of a whole new global platform for collaboration. This is what Friedman called the “Genesis moment of the flat world. The net result “is that people can work with other people on more stuff than ever before.
This created a global platform for multiple forms of collaboration. The next six flatteners sprang from that platform. Uploading involves communities that upload and collaborate on online projects. Friedman considers the phenomenon “the most disruptive force of all. Friedman argues that outsourcing has enabled companies to split service and manufacturing activities into components that can be subcontracted and performed in the most efficient, most-cost-effective way.
This process became easier with the mass distribution of fiber-optic cable during introduction of the World Wide Web. This is the internal relocation of a company’s manufacturing or other processes to a foreign land to take advantage of less costly operations there. Now such countries as Malaysia, Mexico, and Brazil must compete against China and one another to have businesses offshore to them. For example, UPS repairs Toshiba computers on behalf of Toshiba. The work is done at the UPS hub by UPS employees.