Smithsonian children”s encyclopedia of american history pdf

1958, where it has since remained on permanent exhibition. The Hope Diamond has long smithsonian children’s encyclopedia of american history pdf rumored to carry a curse, possibly due to agents trying to arouse interest in the stone.

Tavernier Blue, is a large, 45. India to France to Britain and eventually to the United States, where it has been regularly on public display since. It has been described as the “most famous diamond in the world”. Gem Trade Lab determined that the diamond weighed 45. The dimensions in terms of length, width, and depth are 25. Current photographs of the Hope Diamond use high-intensity light sources that tend to maximize the brilliance of gemstones.

Tavernier had described it as a “beautiful violet”. The red glow helps scientists “fingerprint” blue diamonds, allowing them to “tell the real ones from the artificial. People typically think of the Hope Diamond as a historic gem, but this study underscores its importance as a rare scientific specimen that can provide vital insights into our knowledge of diamonds and how they are formed in the earth. The clarity was determined to be VS1, with whitish graining present. The cut was described as being “cushion antique brilliant with a faceted girdle and extra facets on the pavilion. Hope Diamond in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.

The Hope Diamond in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington D. According to Smithsonian curator Dr. Jeffrey Post, the boron may be responsible for causing the blue color of the stones after tests using infrared light measured a spectrum of the gems. Smithsonian officials to hold the gem in his hand in 2003, he wrote that the first thought that had come into his mind was: “Wow! It was described as “cool to the touch. 5-carat stone—about the size of a walnut and heavier than its translucence makes it appear—turning it from side to side as the light flashes from its facets, knowing it’s the hardest natural material yet fearful of dropping it.

The Hope Diamond contains trace amounts of boron atoms intermixed with the carbon structure, which results in the rare blue color of the diamond. It is unclear who had initially owned the gemstone, where it had been found, by whom, and in what condition. Tavernier brought to Paris a large uncut stone which was the first known precursor to the Hope Diamond. Another estimate is that it weighed 112.

Les Six Voyages de J. Tavernier mentions the mines at “Gani” Kollur as a source of colored diamonds, but made no direct mention of the stone. Tavernier obtained the blue diamond during one of his five voyages to India between the years 1640 and 1667. One report suggests he took 25 diamonds to Paris, including the large rock which became the Hope, and sold all of them to King Louis XIV. 147 kilograms of pure gold. Tavernier by Louis XIV was a part of the payment for the Tavernier Blue. King’s Finance Minister, regularly sold offices and noble titles for cash, and an outright patent of nobility, according to Wise, was worth approximately 500,000 livres making a total of 720,000 livres, a price about half Tavernier’s estimate of the gem’s true value.

Tavernier’s invoice would be in old French carats, thus 115. Sieur Pitau, to recut the Tavernier Blue, resulting in a 67. Louis’ emblem, and seven being a number rich in meaning in biblical cosmology, indicating divinity and spirituality. The piece fell into disuse after the death of Louis XV.

Crown Jewels during a five-day looting spree. Marie Antoinette was guillotined on 16 October of the same year: these beheadings are commonly cited as a result of the diamond’s “curse”, but the historical record suggests that Marie Antoinette had never worn the Golden Fleece pendant because it had been reserved for the exclusive use of the king. London” after being seized in 1792 in Paris. One report suggested that the cut was a “butchered job” because it sheared off 23. 5 carats from the larger rock as well as hurting its “extraordinary lustre. Hope Diamond’s “authentic history” can only be traced back to 1830.

The jewel was a “massive blue stone of 45. British monarch, but records are lacking. There are conflicting reports about what happened to the diamond during these years. Windsor, although some secondary evidence exists in the form of contemporary writings and artwork, and George IV tended to mix up the Crown property of the Crown Jewels with family heirlooms and his own personal property. George had, indeed, owned the diamond. Another report states that the king’s debts were “so enormous” that the diamond was probably sold through “private channels”.

In either case, the blue diamond was not retained by the British royal family. In 1839, the Hope Diamond appeared in a published catalog of the gem collection of Henry Philip Hope, who was a member of the same Anglo-Dutch banking family. After falling into the ownership of the Hope family, the stone came to be known as the “Hope Diamond”. Henry Philip Hope died in 1839, the same year as the publication of his collection catalog.

His three nephews, the sons of Thomas and Louisa, fought in court for ten years over his inheritance, and ultimately the collection was split up. When Hope died on December 4, 1862, his wife Anne Adele inherited the gem, but she feared that the profligate lifestyle of her son-in-law might cause him to sell the Hope properties. Hope” to his own surnames when he reached the age of legal majority. As Lord Francis Hope, this grandson received his legacy in 1887. Yohé wore the Hope Diamond on at least one occasion. She later claimed that she had worn it at social gatherings and had an exact replica made for her performances, but her husband claimed otherwise. Lord Francis lived beyond his means, and this eventually caught up with him, leading to marriage troubles and financial reverses, and he found that he had to sell the diamond.

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