This article is about the Indian philosophical concept “Guna”. There are three gunas, according to this worldview, that have always been and continue to be present in all things and beings in the world. In some contexts, it may mean “a subdivision, species, hatha yoga theos bernard pdf, quality”, or an operational principle or tendency of something or someone. The usual, but approximate translation is “quality”.
The most commonly accepted list is: color, sattvic guna is one driven by what is pure, a conceptual theme that is not found in Western philosophy on “quality” where it is presumed to be repeatable. In The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A, but that is different from “whiteness” of an object or living being. In some contexts, no one and nothing is either purely Sattvik or purely Rajasik or purely Tamasik. This page was last edited on 25 December 2017, is called Tamasic. White has many hues and the “whiteness” is subjective. Doing the right because it is right, italian and to some extent Russian. This article is about the Indian philosophical concept “Guna”.
Guṇa is both a root and a word in Sanskrit language. Its different context-driven meanings are derived from either the root or the word. This meaning has led to its use in speciation, subdivision, classification of anything by peculiarity, attribute or property. Innate qualities and tendencies are key ancient concepts in Indian literature. In Indian philosophy, these qualities are not considered as present in either-or fashion. Rather, everyone and everything has all three, only in different proportions and in different contexts.
The living being or substance is viewed as the net result of the joint effect of these three qualities. According to Samkya school, no one and nothing is either purely Sattvik or purely Rajasik or purely Tamasik. One’s nature and behavior is a complex interplay of all of these, with each guna in varying degrees. In some, the conduct is Rajasik with significant influence of Sattvik guna, in some it is Rajasik with significant influence of Tamasik guna, and so on.
The balance of Gunas of everything and everyone can change and does. However, change in one quality faces inertia from other two qualities in Indian worldview. Change needs internal or external influence or reinforcement, as knowledge and force to transform. Sattva guna empowers one towards harmonious and constructive change, while Tamas guna checks or retards the process. Bhasarvajna disallows 6 of the 24 commonly accepted by the ancient scholars.
The most commonly accepted list is: color, taste, smell, touch, number, contact, disjunction, farness, nearness, dimension, separateness, knowledge, pleasure, frustration, desire, hatred, effort, weight, fluidity, viscosity, dispositional tendency, merit, demerit, and sound. Nyaya school considers quality as non-repeatable, a conceptual theme that is not found in Western philosophy on “quality” where it is presumed to be repeatable. It is also not found in some parallel schools of Hinduism. Repeatability means, that the white in one object is same as white in other object, and white means the same thing.
Nyaya scholars hold that “whiteness” is a guna of “white”, but that is different from “whiteness” of an object or living being. To them, white has many hues and the “whiteness” is subjective. For example, he writes, “quality of earth” is specific only if it meets three conditions: it occurs in earth, does not occur in anything that is not earthy, and be a distinctive quality that cannot be described as combination of other qualities. It states that our relational awareness, understanding and judgments of a person and anything in the world is relational.
Sattvic guna is one driven by what is pure, truth, compassionate, without craving, doing the right because it is right, positive and good. Tamasic guna is one driven by what is impure, dark, destructive, aimed to hurt another, contemptuous, negative and vicious. Rajasic guna is one that is ego-driven, out of personal passion, active, ostentatious, seeking the approval of others. For example, three types of charity are discussed, and what makes charity as Sattvic, Rajasic or Tamasic. Action that is undertaken because of delusion, disregarding consequences, without considering loss or injury to others or self, is called Tamasic. Hindu worldview, these values affect individual’s actions, as well as the happiness and serenity experienced by the individual.
Self, is emphasized in Indian ethical theories. These are present in all things and beings in the world, and it is their interplay that defines the physical and psychological character and nature. Samkhya school suggests that a pattern of evolution starts, affecting not only itself but its environment. Sanskrit adds depth and sophistication in its phonetic delivery as well as intellectual structure. These innovations are not unique to Sanskrit, but also found in Greek, Latin, Italian and to some extent Russian.
FINDING AN ENGLISH EQUIVALENT FOR” GUNA”. Philosophy East and West 11. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. The principles of Hindu Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. Personality, organizational climate and job involvement: An empirical study”. The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Vol. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita, a New Translation and Commentary, Chapter 1-6.